Introduction to C language

C language is a common high-level language, originally designed by Dennis Ritchie in the Bell Labs for the development of UNIX operating system. The C language was first implemented in 1972 on the DEC PDP-11 computer.

In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie produced the first publicly available description of C, now known as the K & R standard.

UNIX operating system, C compiler, and almost all UNIX applications are written in C language. For a variety of reasons, the C language has now become a widely used professional language.

·         Easy to learn.
·         Structured language.
·         It produces efficient programs.
·         It can handle the underlying activities.
·         It can be compiled on a variety of computer platforms.

About C

·         The C language was invented for the purpose of writing a UNIX operating system.
·         C language is based on the B language, B language is probably introduced in 1970.
·         The C language standard was developed in 1988 by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
·         As of 1973, the UNIX operating system was written entirely in C language.
·         At present, C language is the most widely used system programming language.
·         Most of the advanced software is implemented using the C language.
·         Today’s most popular Linux operating system and RDBMS (Relational Database Management System: relational database management system) MySQL are written in C language.

Why use C?

C language was originally used for system development work, especially the composition of the operating system procedures. Since the code generated by the C language runs almost as fast as the code written in the assembly language, the C language is used as the system development language. Here are a few examples of using C:
·         operating system
·         Language compiler
·         Assembler
·         text editor
·         printer
·         Network drive
·         Modern procedures
·         database
·         Language interpreter
·         Physical tools

C program

A C language program, which can be 3 lines or millions of lines, can be written in one or more text files with the extension “.c” , for example, hello.c . You can use “vi” , “vim” or any other text editor to write your C program.
This tutorial assumes that you already know how to edit a text file and how to write the source code in the program file.


C11 (also known as C1X) refers to ISO standard ISO / IEC 9899: 2011, is the latest C language standard. Prior to its C language standard for C99.

New features

·         Alignment normalization (including the _Alignas notation, the alignof operator, the aligned_alloc function, and the <stdalign.h> header file).
·         _Noreturn function tag, similar to gcc __attribute __ ((noreturn)).
·         _Generic keywords.
·         Multithreading support, including:
_Thread_local storage type identifier, <threads.h> header file, which contains the thread creation and management functions.
_Atomic type modifier and <stdatomic.h> header file.
·         Enhanced Unicode support. Enhanced Unicode support based on the C Unicode Technical Report ISO / IEC TR 19769: 2004. Including the char16_t and char32_t data types for UTF-16 / UTF-32 encoding, providing the header file <uchar.h> containing the unicode string conversion function.
·         Removed the gets () function, using a new, more secure function gets_s () instead.
·         Added a border check function interface that defines new security functions such as fopen_s (), strcat_s (), and so on.
·         Added more floating point processing macros (macros).
·         Anonymous structure / consortium support. This gcc already exists, C11 will be introduced into the standard.
·         Static assertions, _ Static_assert (), are processed after interpreting #if and #error.
·         New fopen () mode, (“… x”). Similar to POSIX in the O_CREAT | O_EXCL, in the file lock is more commonly used.

·         Added the quick_exit () function as a third way to terminate the program. You can do the least cleanup when exit () fails.

History of C Programming Language: Click Here

History of C Programming Language

C Programming Language tutorial in Hindi

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